This article is not an extensive study or analysis of the 266th Pope's policy. These are just comments based on certain things he said and did that the author heard, and saw in mass media. Of course, no one can hear and see all the things he says and does.

The reader can hear and see what he says and does that the writer does not hear and see. Are his words and actions that are not typically papal, his characteristic or has he been influenced by the Jesuit policy under General Superior Pedro Arrupe of the Jesuits, of whom he was a member, or was it another reason? This is just a hypothetical assumption, not an assertion of what has happened such, then must be so. His words and actions not typically papal are quite numerous. However, within the scope of this article, the writer only points out certain non-typically-papal words and actions.

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  • This article is the English version of the Vietnamese article on the same subject written by the same author, published 22 April 2018, in www.mucvuvanbut.net on the same section.
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The past-influence of the Jesuits

There are individuals or groups of a certain religious order, observing religious life with strict discipline that, after their religious order or the Church undergoes a multifaceted innovation, they may adopt the opposite way of life. They can ask questions whether the things they lived and practiced before, are still relevant and is it necessary now for them to keep them.  In response, they can make their decision to follow the easygoing lifestyle, or they can abandon the past.

The Jesuits did not escape the corollary. When Ignatius, from Spanish Basque, instituted the Society of Jesus (The Jesuits) in 1534, he applied some of the military discipline that he was influenced to his new Order. The Order is known for its discipline and for the defense of Catholic authenticity. The central point of the Order’s policy is absolute loyalty to the papal authority, zeal for reform against corrupt practices in the Church and aim at fervent evangelization in Europe and the New World.

After the Second Vatican Council with new vision on the Church and society and the renewal of the liturgy, the Jesuits suffered a profound crisis in the identity and mission of the Order, undermining the self-confidence of the Order in training and intellectual activity commonly known about the priests of the Order. Under the Superior General, Pedro Arrupe, another Spanish Basque, the Jesuits were no longer Jesuits before Vatican II. Under the leadership of the Superior General of the Jesuits from 1965 to 1983, Arrupe simulated the Jesuit identity in the interest of social justice and human freedom, attacking the traditional doctrines of faith and morality of the Church and no longer wanting to obey the papal authority.

This direction is not compatible with all ranks in the Order. Many Jesuit college professors, especially the priests of the Order of the Gregorian University in Rome, strongly opposed Arrupe's leadership. In addition, in Spain there was a movement to separate the Jesuit Order. The "Old Guard" of the Order sought to restore the line of the Order. Thanks to the intervention of Pope Paul VI at the request of Cardinal Tarancón, head of the Spanish Church, for fear of a divisive Catholicism in Spain, a separation perspective could be prevented.  In the midst of this turmoil, a large outcry of young priests in the Order occurred, between 800 and 1100 priests leaving the priesthood each year during the years of 1966 and 1974. At the same time, there were lesser young men to enter the Order. From the mid-1960s to the mid-1990s, the average age of Jesuit priests worldwide increased from 35 to 65 [1].

Pope Paul VI denounced the Jesuits applying loose discipline. He thought that the Superior General of the Jesuits should have to discipline the priests of the Order for the liberation theology of Central and South America.

Under Pope John Paul II, one felt that he preferred utilizing the Opus Dei clergy. The Opus Dei (Work of God) was established in Spain in 1921 by Fr. Josemaria Escrivá and approved by Pope Pius XII in 1950. Pope John Paul II placed the Opus Dei as the Apostolic Prelate under the prelature of the bishop of Opus Dei in 1982, supervising the members of Opus Dei anywhere. In 2016, the Opus Dei Apostolic Prelature had 92,667 lay people and 2,109 priests operating in 90 countries, not to mention 2,000 diocesan Priestly Society of the Holy Cross of Opus Dei. [2]

Pope John Paul II expressed his suspicion of the Jesuits under the leadership of Superior General Arrupe. In 1980, he asked Jesuit priests to leave the government. In America, Jesuit priest Robert Father Drinan, a member of the United States Congress, has obeyed. When Pope John Paul II traveled to Nicaragua of Central America in 1983, Father Ernesto Cardenal, Jesuit, Minister of Culture in the Nicaraguan Government, bowed to him at the airport. The Pope waved his finger and scolded him roughly to rectify his ways. In other words, if he wants to continue being a priest, he must leave the ministry of culture. The reason for political involvement is party politics. However, party politics sometimes used tricks and frauds. Frauds and tricks are not compatible with the priestly calling and ministry.

When Arrupe suffered a stroke in 1981, the Jesuit leadership was interrupted. At that time, the Roman Curia took the opportunity, calling for Jesuit discipline. Consequently, Pope John Paul II intervened directly in the administration of the Jesuits, suspended the constitution of the Order and exceeded the authority of the Superior General, successor to Father Arrupe. After two years of trial, Pope John Paul II allowed the Jesuits to hold a general conference and elect a new superior general [3].

When the Holy See was dissatisfied with the Jesuits, Fr. Jorge Mario Bergoglio - now Pope  Francis - was Jesuit leader from 1979 to 1983 in Argentina. He criticized liberation theology for the Marxist trend, but promoted the service of the poor.

When Cardinal Jorge Mario Bergoglio, Jesuit, Archbishop of Buenos Aires, elected Pope on March 13, 2013, he was the first Jesuit Pope, the first Pope outside of Europe, and the first Pope of South America. Being the Jesuit Pope, yet he chose not to be (Pope) Ignatius, the Founder of the Jesuits, or (Pope) Francis, the Jesuit co-founder, but chose (Pope) Francis (Assisi), the founder of the Franciscan Order, line of poverty. This decision is in line with his advocacy of the poor as he was the Jesuit superior in Argentina.

The choice of simple means to eat, lodge and travel

Instead of living in the Papal apartment of the Apostolic Palace, whose predecessors had lived and worked, Pope Francis chose to live at St Martha’s Guest House, in the double room 201, which he took by lot when he came to Rome for the Papal conclave in 2013. Saint Martha’s Guest House was built and completed by Pope John Paul II in 1996, near St Peter’s Basilica as a Guest House for cardinals and bishops, when they came to Rome to see the Pope. It serves also as a "hotel" for the cardinals when come to the Vatican for a papal conclave to stay for convenience to elect a new pope. This is a 5-storey building, with 106 double  rooms - each with a bedroom, a working room, a bathroom and a separate toilet, with furnished furniture,  not luxurious, but comfortable. In addition, Martha’s Guest House also has 22 single rooms and an apartment-like room. The Martha House also has a common chapel and dining room and personalized services.

With the Pope's status, he chose there, it would make guests not to feel at home when they move around and eat with him. Although being cardinals, bishops or priests to stay there, they only treat each other as guests. Having a pope there as a boss and a Superior, it would make guests feel more reserved in words and behavior.

The Pope’s stay at St Martha’s Guest House is not as simple, easy and economical as he thinks. To protect his security, there are always two Swiss guards in charge of guarding him day and night. Moreover, a bedroom has to be made for the security team.

In his pastoral visits to different countries, from the airport to the city, he used different car brands such as Mercedes, Toyota, Isuzu, Kia, Hyundai, Land Rover and Jeep. When visiting the United States in September 2015, he used a small Fiat 500L, black from the airport into the capital.

When traveling in the city to greet the people, Pope Francis preferred white pick-up trucks, with large and high cage covers above and in front with handrails, on either side, without bullet-proof   so that he could feel free to communicate with the people standing on either side of the road to welcome him, not the car available with a small glass crank as before. This caused headaches for police and security personnel in deploying additional police to protect him. When he visited the United States, the security guard picked up a baby from his mother and handed to him for a hug.

Celebrating Holy Thursday Mass at prison, washing the feet of women and giving Holy Communion to non-Catholics.

On the first Holy Thursday of 2013 under his papacy, Pope Francis celebrated Mass at the Casal del Marmo youth detention center in Rome and washed the feet of 12 young prisoners of different nationalities and religions: 10 males and 2 females, including a Muslim girl. He also offered communion to everyone in the chapel. The Vatican Insider wrote, "Francis set a bad example by washing the feet of two women and breaking the law of the Church."

In 2014, he celebrated Mass at the Don Gnocchi Center for the Handicapped in Rome, and washed the feet of women. In 2015, the Pope came to celebrate Holy Thursday mass at the Rebibbia prison in Rome.

The Catholic Church advocates religious freedom. According to the policy of the Catholic Church in the United States, nowadays, when having a mixed marriage, the priest celebrates the liturgy of the Word of God only and then the marriage ceremony without mass, i.e., not celebrating Mass because the Church does not want to impose Catholic Mass on people of other faith. By allowing prisoners of other faiths to attend mass and participate in the washing of feet, then receive Holy Communion, Pope Francis imposed Catholic faith on non-Catholics. There are many ways to serve the poor, not just the washing of their feet at the prison on Holy Thursday mass. When Jesus washed the feet of the apostles, he wanted them to serve everyone, not just the poor.

In the context of the Eucharist, Jesus washes the feet of the apostles and teaches them to wash one another's feet, i.e., to serve one another. On this day in the Church's tradition, the priests celebrate the Holy Thursday mass at the parish churches, the bishops celebrate the mass in the cathedral churches, and the pope celebrates the mass in the Basilica of St John Lateran or in St. Peter’s Basilica, for the laity to attend. They administer the washing of feet to remind the laity to wash one another's feet, i.e. to serve one another. Yet Pope Francis went to prisons to say mass and wash their feet of a small group of prisoners.

Pope Francis must have maintained this meaningful ministry of service in the basilica, as a model for local churches, yet did he try to bring his local tradition of washing of feet in Buenos Aires as a model for the universal Church? The church building is the house of God, where the faithful come to worship, pray and give thanks to God. The offering of the mass and washing of feet at a prison is not an emergency case to do so.

In 1988, the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments sent the circular letter about the liturgical celebrations of the Holy Week. No. 51 of the letter states the washing of feet is the rite performed only for chosen men. According to the original Latin, chosen men were 'viri selecti'.

Washing women's feet in other cases, out of the context of the Holy Thursday liturgy, does not matter to people. As for washing women's feet on Holy Thursday, Pope Francis needs to change the rules in advance, so as not to confuse the laity and not to cause difficulty for priests and bishops who do not want to wash women’s feet when some women want to have their feet washed.

On January 6, 2016, with a document from the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, Pope Francis allowed the people chosen for the washing of feet to be "God's people," instead of men. Thus, as pope, he broke the law of the Divine and the Discipline of the Sacraments for the washing of feet three times from Holy Thursday of 2013 to 1015.

Pope Francis’ decision to give communion to some non-Catholics also causes Catholics to get confused. When non-Catholics receive Communion without believing in the presence of the Lord in the Eucharist, they would consider communion as a piece of bread. As such, Catholics consider communion as a sacrilege for lack of faith, hope and love.

In the bulletins or liturgy booklets in the United States, there are often reminders by the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops: (1). For Catholics who do not receive Holy Communion: "Those who do not receive Holy Communion are encouraged to express in their hearts, their desire to be united with Christ and with others." (2). For Christians (Non-Catholics): "Protestants and Catholics do not have full communion, so we cannot invite you to Holy Communion." (3). For Non-Christians (Non-Protestants / Non-Catholics): "We ask you to pray for peace and the unity of the human family, but we cannot invite you to Holy Communion."

Non-scheduled interviews and impromptu press conferences on board

To give a press conference without limitation on subjects to ask and preparations of thoughts to answer, does not describe all what people want to say, also can be easy to make a slip of the tongue. When reporters quote words at the press conference, they may record them at their discretion, or extract them out or not in the context of the matter. To give a press conference without limiting questions, can win sympathy from journalists. Yet, journalism is a double-edged sword. When people want to promote something, the press can help spread it in a good way. The press can cause people to get hurt as it is said in Vietnamese, "journalists tell lies to earn money". In the world today, journalists can be caught by writing fake news, slanted news and false news, in order to belittle or destroy an individual or a group.

On a flight from Brazil back to Rome on July 29, 2013, the Times correspondent asked Pope Francis what he thought about the priest's homosexual affection. The Pope answered, "If a homosexual man looks for God and has good intentions, "Who am I to judge?" The reporter just asked what Pope Francis thought about a homosexual orientation, and Pope Francis only responded to the way he thought about a person with a homosexual orientation. The media did not ask him about homosexual acts and he did not respond to homosexual acts. Thus, when the press quoted him, "Who am I judge?" it makes readers think that he does not condemn homosexual acts or homosexual sin as condemned in the Bible (Gn. 19; Lv. 18:20; Lev. 20:13; Mt 10: 15; Mt 20: 21-24; Rom 1: 26-28; 1Cor 6:9-10).

According to Reuters, March 29, 2018, Vatican officials have been wary of the famous Italian journalist quoting Francis saying that hell does not exist. Vatican officials say that the comment spread on social media networks does not reflect what Pope Francis said. This happened when the atheist journalist Eugenio Scalfari, 93, sought to become an intellectual friend with the Pope, met him recently, and wrote a long story, which included questions and answers at the end. Vatican officials say the Pope only considers private meetings and Scalfari's papers are the result of redevelopment of Pope Francis’ thought, rather than truthfully telling the Pope’s statement.

According to Scalfari, the founder of the La Republica, asked the Pope about the souls of those who do evil and where they go and what the punishment is?  Scalfari quoted Pope Francis as saying, “They are not punished.  The penitents receive God's forgiveness and enter the ranks of those who contemplate God. Those who do not repent and are not forgiven, disappear. Hell does not exist; the disappearance of sinful souls exists”.

Thus, if Pope Francis responds as reported by La Republica and Reuters, then he goes against the teachings of the Bible and the Catechism of the Catholic Church on hell. Pope Francis's response was spread around the world. Thus, Vatican officials had to rectify. This is the third time that Vatican officials have reportedly disagreed with Scafari's writings on the Pope, including a 2014 article in which the pope denied sin.

When rectifying, only a small number of readers can read the correction. While so many people have read the previous answer, may not know about the corrected answer to read. A basket of chicken, duck feathers flushed out for the wind to sweep away, only a handful can be gathered back together. Realizing that damaging consequence, according to Michael M. Chapman of Cnsmews.com on April 2, 2018, Sister Theresa Aletheia, who abandoned her faith, before entering Saint Paul Order, said Pope Francis: "Needs a sassy nun" as his personal assistant, to prevent him from speaking to Scalfari again.

The celebration of the wedding on the flight

On Latham Flight 1250, from Santiago to Iquique, Chile, 18 January 01, 2018, Pope Francis married Paula Podesta Ruis, 39, flight attendant, Catholic and Carlos Ciuffardi Elorriga, 41, aviation manager, Lutheran. Sitting next to Pope Francis, they began to talk. Pope Francis asked if they were married? They responded that they planned to marry when the Chilean earthquake in 2010 collapsed the church, and they were planning to marry, so they had to postpone it. They were married in a civilian ceremony and had two children, Rafaela, six, and Isabella, three. According to them, Pope Francis said he could marry them right now on the flight, 36,000 feet high. They were very surprised and happy. Then, he blessed their rings and said they would need witnesses. They asked the aircraft boss to be a witness, and he blessed their wedding.

Catholics who are taught the sacraments often have to be celebrated in the Catholic Church buildings or in certain chapels. By celebrating the wedding on the flight, Pope Francis has broken the Church law for a dozens of centuries. His blessing of the wedding for two flight attendants was not an emergency case for him to do so, because they were still healthy and working. The church collapsed because of the earthquake, yet the parish priest still had to celebrate weddings and other sacraments somewhere for the faithful. Otherwise, it has been eight years since the church collapsed, was there no mass or wedding celebrated for the parishioners? His blessing of the wedding on the flight will make things difficult for priests when there are couples who want to get married somewhere else such as in parks, beaches or hotels.

Before the wedding ceremony, the couple must wait, as much time as six months as in the United States to be interviewed, investigated whether there is any impediment to church wedding. Then, they have to take marriage instructions. Pope Francis said the couple would need witnesses. The two flight attendants asked another attendant to witness the wedding he was about to perform. The Latin adage says one witness is no witness (testis unus, testis nullus). In addition, the two attendants did not have two witnesses to testify whether they had previously married and had had other impediment. They also needed a dispensation from the impediment of mixed religion. If before eight years ago, they did not have an impediment, then during the past eight years, either of them could do something to cause an impediment. If so, that impediment had to be eliminated before the wedding. They said they planned to marry. Yet they did not say that had satisfied requirements for their wedding.  

After the wedding, the priest celebrating the wedding must record the wedding in the parish register and inform the parish of their baptism to record their wedding at the other parish. This is done for future reference when one of them might try a second marriage and asks for a certificate of baptism, then the priest who issues the certificate of baptism has to report that where and when he or she was married before. Pope Frances performed the hasty marriage on the airplane also make it difficult for parish priests when couples want to take the shortcut preparations for their wedding. The Pope should have told two airline attendants to ask their parish priest(s) to proceed their wedding.

These days, people who want to get married in the church have to wait and prepare. This is not meant to make it difficult for them to get married. Enough time to wait before a wedding is for the couple to find out if they are compatible.  Pre-nuptial investigation is to find out if one of them tells the truth. It happened that some people did try to hide impediment(s) in order to get married in the church. Sufficient pre-nuptial instruction is to help the couple understand the marriage calling and responsibility.

There are quite a few online comments on this wedding on the plane after an article posted by Yahoo. There was one very brief comment in Latin, worth attention, posted by Ilpezkato: “Habemus Demagogue”, imitating a Latin phrase. When a pope is elected, a cardinal in the papal conclave goes out to the balcony of St Peter’s Basilica, announcing to the people in a very brief manner: “Habemus Papam” (We have a pope).

Was Pope Francis, when as a priest, ever appointed a full-time assistant pastor or pastor in a regular parish for a sufficient time to gain knowledge and experience of marriage preparations and wedding liturgy? As for priests who have been assistant pastors or pastors long enough, one does not know for sure whether they dare to celebrate the Holy Thursday mass in a prison, wash the feet of women before the new rule of 2016 and give communion to non-Catholics or perform a wedding in an airplane. If they do, their parishioners may protest, and their bishop may discipline them as a lesson.

Chapter 8 of The Joy of Love (Amoris Laetitia)

A good number of cardinals, bishops, priests, and lay people including journalists  and theologians consider Chapter 8 of the Apostolic Exhortation of the Joy of Love, published April 8, 2016, at the Vatican Press Office as ambiguous, confused, unclear to lay people and even to priest counselors. Based on the circular interpretation in Chapter 8 of this Apostolic Exhortation of the Joy of Love, each layperson and each priest can interpret it differently. If it is so, then it is similar to the way of interpretation of the Protestants.

The Catholic intellectual, who studies the issue, can ask questions and explain. As for common lay people, they need a sense of security to live in the Church. They realize that the teaching on Communion in the Code of Cannon Law and the Catechism of the Catholic Church on Communion is different from the teaching of Holy Communion in the Joy of Love, which confuses them.

The Canon Law of 1983 Article 916 states, “Anyone who is aware of a serious sin and who has not yet made a prior confession, shall not be permitted to celebrate mass and receive Holy Communion, unless there is an important reason and there is no opportunity for confession. In this case, they must reflect on the full obligation of repentance, including the willingness to go to confession as soon as possible”.

The Catechism of the Catholic Church published in 1992, No. 1415 writes, “Anyone who wishes to receive Christ in the Eucharistic communion must be in a state of grace. If anyone knows that he has committed a serious sin, he cannot go to the Eucharistic table unless he has received the forgiveness of sin earlier in the Sacrament of Penance”.

Four Cardinals: Walter Brandmüller, former president of the Pontifical Commission for Historical Science; Raymond L. Burke, leader of the Malta Knights, Charles Caffara (former Archbishop of Bologna) and Joachim Meisner (former Archbishop of Cologne) addressed the Cardinal, Prefectof the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith on 19 September, 2016 asking the Pope to clarify some of the suspicions regarding Chapter 8 of the Apostolic Exhortation "Amoris Laetitia" on marriage and the family.

After Cardinal Meisner died in 2017, three Cardinals Burke, Caffarra and Pujats signed the October 4, 2018 affirmation of the Church's teaching on marriage and the Eucharist. The "Declaration of Fidelity to the Church's unchanging teaching on marriage and the discipline of Sacraments of the Church, unbroken" has collected more than 4,000 signatures worldwide including 6 bishops, 45 priests, most of them parishioners [4].

Michael W. Chapman wrote in an article in cnsnews.com on March 6, 2018 entitled, 'Pope Francis Has Created Enough Confusion,' So People Now Can Ignore 'Moral Teachings'. In the article, Chapman also wrote: " Philip Lawler, the highly respected editor of Catholic World News and the author of 10 books and hundreds of essays on Catholicism, said Pope Francis has deliberately created confusion in the Catholic Church, particularly around the issue of Communion for divorced and remarried couples, which has created moral and doctrinal ambiguity, to the point that it allows clerics and lay people to do an "end run around Church moral teachings." [5].

Why does Chapter 8 of the Joy of Love (Amoris Laetitia) from No. 299 to 312 cause so much ambiguity, question and confusion?  Is it because the words written in the Joy of Love are long, ambiguous, and unclear? Reading the Joy of Love, priests and lay people can understand and interpret differently and apply differently. When it is applied differently, that is, when one finds that this person living in a marital situation with obstacle can receive communion, but the other person also living in such a marital situation and can receive Communion, that would make people confused.

In fact, the unclear, ambiguous moral marital teachings have emerged since 2014, Year of the Family, prepared for the World Congress of the Family in 2015 in Philadelphia, when Pope Francis convened the third special session of the Synod of Bishops, held at the Vatican with the theme "The challenges of family ministry in the context of the evangelization."

According to Cardinal Walter Kasper, a retired German, invited by Pope Francis to the Synod of Bishops, Pope Francis’ intention was he would like to listen to the Fathers speaking in a free and open atmosphere about parishioners on issues related to their marriage / family life such as divorce, remarriage, homosexuality, cohabitation, contraception, abortion, etc. Thus, when the speeches of some of the Fathers were reported and speculated by the press, including Catholic and secular, in newspaper, radio, television, and worldwide network of internet, causing Catholics faithful to the church, confused and worried about the traditional teachings of the church being attacked, swept away and overturned. Even the answers of some Fathers, such as Cardinal Walter Kasper, interviewed by the media about moral and sexual issues, also confounded the faithful.

According to the Associated Press, when preparing the Joy of Love, Pope Francis welcomed the reflections of the Third Special Synod of Bishops on various issues and welcomed the comments of the various Synod Fathers. .

Accepting various reflections and comments on the topics of argument without being purified and eliminated, perhaps was the reason that caused Chapter 8 of the Apostolic Exhortation of the Joy of Love, full of wordiness, unclear, ambiguous, confused, misunderstanding to the laity and even priest counselors  as happened when the Synod of Bishops spoke and answered the press in 2014.

In a "Letter to Bishops of the Catholic Church on the reception of the Eucharist by divorced and remarried people," September 14, 1994, Cardinal Ratzinger, Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith wrote clearly on the discipline of Sacraments, but still invited the divorced and remarried to live the life of the Catholic faith:

"The faithful must be helped to understand more deeply the value of communion with Christ's sacrifice in the Mass, of the spiritual communion, of prayers, mediations of the word of God, of practice of charity and justice ".

General comment on the person and the course of action of Pope Francis

In general, from the perspective of the people through the media, Pope Francis was admired by many people, including non-Catholics, for his openness, simplicity, dialogue, listening, living poor, defending the poor, refugees and marginalized people.

The mass media circle also has sympathy with him for they are free to ask questions about any issue and they have more opportunities to exercise their journalism. They also have opportunities to visit this place or that by accompanying him on his pastoral visits abroad. If they are given free meals during the visits, they probably enjoy it.

However, there are also many articles and media outlets, Catholic and secular, in different languages, criticizing his way as well as his work done in non-papal ways. For the conservative wishing to remain faithful to the Catholic doctrine and the ethical traditions of the Church, including cardinals, bishops, priests, lay men and women, theologians and even Catholic lay people, he has caused ambiguity and confusion in the Church.

Even for non-Catholics, they also wanted Pope Francis to promote and maintain the traditional, human values of morality that God had endowed in their minds and hearts, not just values of morality of any religion. In articles, short commentaries on him after the articles, they also criticized his deeds in non-papal ways. They wanted him to be their ally in defense of traditional moral values. There are those marginalized and peripheral people, who also do not agree with Pope Francis’ words and deeds in non-papal ways. They considered their marginalized and peripheral lifestyles as exceptional, which they have not yet escaped or cannot escape. Those who are silent, not criticizing his words and deeds in non-papal ways, are not satisfied with the way he governs the Church and thus, he does not win their affectionate and respectful feelings.

Dissatisfied in action are three Catholic judges of the Supreme Court of the United States. These three judges boycotted his speech - not attending, leaving three vacant seats in the front row of the Chamber- when Pope Francis delivered his speech at the US Congress on September 24, 2015. The names of these three judges may be found on the Internet. The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States is also Catholic, but he ought to be present. Five other federal judges were not Catholics, but attended Pope Francis’s talk in the Congress.

Surely, Pope Francis must have heard about Catholic or secular articles, as well as discussions in the Roman Curia, which criticized the Exhortation of Joy of Love, that on April 10, 2018 he called for unity "Pope Francis urges unity". Yahoo reprinted an article of Fox News written about Pope Francis’s call for unity. "Division is the work of the devil," he said. There are readers who reject his words attributing the sin of division to the devil, sometimes only half a line, or 1, 2, 3 lines. They roughly say who is divisive and why he does not clarify vague teachings. Readers Dr Vinny writes, “If he says there is no hell, why is there a devil”? A reader named "toughcritic" writes (paraphrased by the author): Pope Francis is a source of discord among those who are faithful to the doctrine and traditional teachings for centuries and changes following the liberal tendencies that dominate Catholics, not following the word of God. Another reader named Richard writes (paraphrased by the author): The notion of unity of Pope Francis is that each one must obey the Catholic Church even when it is contrary to the Word of God.

Commentaries on his words and deeds in non-papal ways in the mass media, or discussions in the Roman Curia on those words and deeds of his, are necessarily gossiping, or talks behind his back or is it "the work of the devil" as he affirmed, or just the discussions to learn and find out for truth?

It is known that Fox News is not a Catholic online news agency. Thus, readers who criticize his call for unity are not necessarily Catholics, and they know what he has said and done so. Then one must suppose  that the words he wrote in the Apostolic Exhortation of the Joy of Love (Amroris Laetitia) and his statement about "hell do not exist" according to the media report must have widely spread.

For the conclusion

There are countless ways to serve the poor, marginalized and peripheral, other than what Pope Francis did, to show compassion, to be close to and to help them. Were deeds in non-papal ways of Pope Francis due to the influence of the Jesuits after Vatican II, under Superior General Arrupe, or due to his own nature, or due to any other reason?

When Jesus calls a person doing the work of God, God's grace does not destroy human nature (Gratia supponet humanam naturam). After the Lord called Peter, he was still quick-tempered. When Jesus was arrested by the temple soldiers in the Garden of Gethsemane, Peter threw his sword and cut off the ear of the servant of the high priest.

In the history of the Church: local churches (parish, religious order, diocese) as well as the universal Church, there are priests, bishops, and cardinals, sometimes even popes who, have done many works: good, spiritual and holy, beneficial to the Church. They might be holy, spiritual, good and bright. However, their words, writings, and works are the result of poor / false judgments, lack of balance, having caused damage to the universal church or local churches more or less. Contrary to false judgments is common sense (bon sense in French).

Optimistic or pessimistic about changes in the Church and in human society, and in any situation or circumstance, the Lord instructs the faithful through the apostles: "Pray constantly for the          strength to escape whatever is in prospect, and to stand secure before the Son of Man"(Lk 21:36). The Lord also promises to assure the faithful through the apostles just before the Ascension: "I will be with you always, until the end of the age" (Mt 28:20).

Gia Công

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Post Scriptum by the author:

 In early May 2018, the German bishops' conference sent the Vatican to ratify National Guidelines that allows Lutheran Christians, marrying Catholics, to receive Holy Communion at Mass.

 On May 25, 2018, Cardinal Luis Ladaria, Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, wrote to Cardinal Reinhard Marx, President of the German Bishops' Conference, on behalf of Pope Francis saying it was not mature enough to be published, and ask the German bishops' conference to not publishing the guidelines.

 On this point, one wonders whether the "Guidance for Confession" and Luther's "Homily on preparation for Communion" in Germany exactly 500 years ago in 1518, led to the full Lutheran assault to the sacramental theology of the Catholic Church, which influenced the two thirds of the German bishops, allowing Lutheran Christians, marrying Catholics to receive Holy Communion at Mass?

 It can be assumed that Cardinal Walter Kasper, a retired German, was invited by Pope Francis to the World Synod of Bishops on the family in 2014, to have a different say on the other bishops on the issues, related to marriage and family life, is in the 2/3 of the German Bishops' Conference, supporting the 'Guidelines'.

 It is also assumed with certainty that Cardinal Gerhard Ludwig Muller, the former Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, whose term as Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith was not renewed by Pope Francis and Cardinal Rainer Maria Woelki, Archbishop Köln, voted with one third of the German Bishops' Conference, not supporting the 'Guidelines'.

 It can also be assumed that by asking the bishops of Germany not to publish the 'Guidelines', Pope Francis has learned the lesson about the Apostolic Exhortation "The Joy of Love" that confused Catholics. He wanted to hear and receive the various reflections and remarks of the Fathers, especially of Cardinal Walter Kasper, of Germany on topics related to their marriage / family such as divorce, remarriage, homosexuality, living together without marriage, birth control, abortion in the Synod of Bishops on the Family in 2014, as highlighted in the bold paragraph in this article.

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[1]. Ideas and numbers about the Jesuits in this paragraph borrowed and words paraphrased from an article of Howell, Patrick, S.J. “The ‘New’ Jesuits. The Response to the Society of Jesus to Vatican II, 1962-2012: some alacrity, some resistance”. https://epublications.market.edu . September 2012.

[2]. Personnel numbers about Opus Dei are from Wikipedia.

[3]. Malone, M., S.J. Remembering the Jesuit who paved the way for Pope Francis. December 06, 2016

[4]. Chapman, M.W. Pope's Confusing Teaching Rejected, Cardinals Issue Declaration on Marriage.  www. Cnsnews.com. Apr 10/2018

 [5]. Chapman, M. W. Catholic Scholar: 'Pope Francis Has Created Enough Confusion,' So People Now Can Ignore 'Moral Teachings'. March 6, 2018 | 5:42 PM EST

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